Adaptación y validación de la Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4) en una muestra de quechua hablantes peruanos

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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52379/mcs.v8i1.361

Palabras clave:

ansiedad, depresión, validez, quechua hablante

Resumen

Introducción: El Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4) es una medida de autoinforme ultrabreve de síntomas depresivos y ansiosos. El PHQ-4 no ha sido adaptado ni validado en la población quechua hablante. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo adaptar y validar el PHQ-4 en una muestra de población peruana quechua hablante en su variante Collao de Puno-Perú. Metodología: Participaron 221 personas hablantes de quechua variante collao (promedio de edad de 31,2 años, SD = 11,7, 47,1 % hombres y 52,9 % mujeres). Se evaluó la evidencia de validez basada en la estructura interna, mediante el análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA), la fiabilidad con el método de consistencia interna y las características de dificultad y discriminación de los ítems en base a la Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem (IRT).  Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que todos los ítems del PHQ-4 son relevantes, coherentes y claros para representar adecuadamente los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión. El resultado del AFC apoyó un modelo unifactorial, donde los ítems de ansiedad y depresión conforman una sola variable latente con una fiabilidad alta. Todos los ítems del PHQ-4 presentas buenos parámetros de discriminación y los parámetros de dificultad indican que los ítems son comparativamente difíciles. Por lo tanto, se necesita una mayor presencia del rasgo latente (ansiedad y depresión) para responder las categorías de respuesta más altas.Discusión: En conclusión, la PHQ-4 presentó buenas propiedades psicométricas como una medida de detección primaria rápida, confiable y válida para personas quechuahablantes que necesitan una evaluación profunda, monitoreo de los síntomas para diagnóstico y tratamiento para la ansiedad o depresión.

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